His reply astounded his audience. In our thought experiments we are presumably weighing a life with a known disadvantage against a life without disadvantage when we should be weighing a life with a known disadvantage against another with some likely but unknown disadvantage. I hope not to focus on these two particular cases; my point is that there are marginal cases, and the disability-disease distinction seems muddy, and I wonder if this makes it less useful in the majority of cases. This seems to me to be a decisive mistake. It finds that policies and programmes are inadequate. Disadvantage can face us if we suffer mental illness, physical illness, or drug addiction. Beth, on the other hand, wants to become pregnant, and after consulting with her doctor, who recommends waiting until after undergoing a treatment program, she successfully attempts to become pregnant and continues drinking throughout her pregnancy. The mere presence of, any one or more symptom does not qualify a child to be called SPLD. Policies are the instruments for institutionalisation of a theory or practice. As Adrienne Asch has observed (Parens and Asch, 2000, Prenatal Testing and Disability Rights, p. 235), to terminate a fetus on the basis of having detected a disability is to put far too much weight on only one aspect of who that fetus will become. On the other hand, the likelihood for all of us is that sometime during our lives, later or sooner, we will achieve our potential to experience a disability. Does this mean that a couple with a persistent record of terrible child abuse should still be serious candidates for fertility treatment? But it does not correspond to any imaginable scenario in the world we inhabit. But these are too delicate for the hard realities we face. If we are not motivated by the ugly attitudes [toward disability], if what we care about is really not disability but flourishing, the medical boundary may be impossible to defend” (36). An average of 10% of the world’s population have some form of a learning disability; in 2014, 2.4 million publicly-schooled children in the US alone were identified as having a learning disability under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act : (RtE) provides free and compulsory education to all, children aged 6-14. For example, in a conversation on the online magazine Double X in 2009, Ayelet Waldman discusses her decision to have a late-term abortion because her fetus had Down syndrome. The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan has published the following, guidelines for identification of the SPLD child in the school (SSA, 2013): “, completing the task while performing a given task without getting distracted when unsupervised, leaves letters or words, while reading a line , uses finger for tracking while reading, Has difficulty organizing things for example by shape, colour, or size such as placing books in a school bag systematically by size or arranging cloths on a rack in categories of size and, use, difficulty in copying from black board without missing letters or words, difficulty in using mathematical symbols and. Suppose there are two women, Anna and Beth, and they are both alcoholics. Sadly, I don’t think they’d be all that helpful. 1964 Association for Children with Learning Disabilities (ACLD) is created. But in another exchange with a bioethicist (who, like many of the respondents here, reminds me that bioethicists do not all walk in single file, and do not all board trolleys at the same time), I was asked about the difference between postponing a pregnancy so that the child is not born near Christmas, and aborting a pregnancy so that the child is not born near Christmas. understanding relation between numbers, difficulty in differentiating letter such as ‘b’ and ‘d’, or numbers like ‘9’ and ‘6’, difficulty in maintaining a straight line or leaving appropriate space between words, difficulty in understanding use of, relationship between numbers and sentences, difficulty in selecting or filtering specific details to answer a question from a, story, passage or a narration of an incident, difficulty in locating an object when given specific sequence of instruction for. There are two ways in which we can show this. My daughter, for example, is severely disabled, but she is also robustly healthy. And because taking folic acid and avoiding alcoholic beverages during pregnancy increases the chance that our children face fewer obstacles, pregnant women should be encouraged to engage in these relatively easy-to-accomplish, benign behaviors. So why isolate disability? And we should try to reduce that cost as far as possible. These developmental delays and learning difficulties also need to be considered by educational planners. That point has to do with my misunderstanding of Parfit’s thought experiment about postponement of pregnancy over against treatment in utero. Frances Kamm accepts that, having a life worth living, the child with mild retardation will not be harmed by being created. The symptoms of SPLD are, extremely variable. A universal history of learning disabilities would be very difficult due to the various definitions of learning disabilities used by the many educational systems throughout the world. If one is making the argument, as Glover is, that we should be choosing a child who has the possibility of flourishing and whenever possible we should choose the child that has the better chance at flourishing, then to elide the already muddy distinction between disease and disability is perhaps too convenient, but not entirely unwarranted. For instance, even though he begins a discussion of blindness by writing, “since sight enriches our lives so much, it is hard not to see blindness as an obstacle to flourishing” (17), he proceeds to recount the stories of John Hull, whose terror at going blind was gradually replaced by a wholly new sense of himself and his world, and of “S.B.,” who became severely depressed after an operation restored his sight. Still I believe that there is another problem with the argument that does not rely on the disease/disability distinction. for Disabled at Secondary Stage (IEDSS 2009). (1). SSA adopted zero rejection policy so that no child is left out of the education system. In the course of asking whether “prospective parents [should] be under some moral pressure, at least, to consider whether it is right to bring into the world a child whose life is, by a small margin, just worth living” (54–55), Glover argues against the “zero-line view” in favor of a “minimum level” of flourishing. One is by making the comparison with other medical programmes. I also disagreed with much of Glover’s argument. You might deny that disability necessarily limits one’s potential for flourishing (that’s the sort of approach I take), but the thought experiment does seem to show that those who accept that disability necessarily limits one’s potential for flourishing cannot simply argue that having a disabled child was not wrong because the child was not harmed, not harmed since avoiding the disability would have meant having had a different child, and the child does in fact have a pretty good life overall. Thanks to everyone for these wonderful responses to my post. Such trolley problems and what-if hypotheticals profoundly distort what it is like to contemplate having a child who may have a disability; indeed, they distort what it is like to have a child. The third thing to be said about this discussion, then, is the thing with which I began this post: bioethics is much too important to be left to bioethicists. I think there is a danger in equating disability, as some utilitarian bioethicists do, with all the worst and most difficult forms of life – Tay Sachs or Lesch Nyhan or other profound limitations in which the possibility of flourishing seem truly remote. Glover argues carefully against many of the ugly attitudes that would stigmatize or seek to eliminate people with disabilities; but the idea that disability is best thought of as analogous to cancer cannot be called an “attractive” attitude. Yet this tension between recognizing the perspectives of people with disabilities and perpetuating a view of disability as antithetical to flourishing also raises questions about epistemic authority. But it isn’t a cure. I will merely point out that the dexamethasone treatment has no counterpart in pre-conception counseling, so the analogy with Parfit’s thought experiment breaks down there. There is enough murkiness and indeterminacy in this area that gliding from disability to disease is not necessarily a foul move in this argument. But just as important is the fact that disadvantage is a possibility, if not a likelihood, in any life. They rely on visual-spatial strategies. Learning Disabilities Prevalence. This conversation, while ending here, continues on Facebook. Humanities-The Policies and Practices for Inclu... For Later, THE POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR INCLUSION OF CHILDREN WITH SPECIFIC, Associate Professor, Research Scholar, National University of Educational Planning and Administration, India, MA MPhil (Oxon), PGCE, Dip. She might go further and invent a new and better wheelchair or prosthetic and thus become a successful—let us imagine a hugely successful—entrepreneur. Special education and learning disabilities through the lenses of Social Science and Humanities I need to be able to provide the following: “Introduction,” introduce your topic by identifying it and explaining why you chose to study it.. Special education and learning disabilities and Social Science explain how your topic is viewed through Learn tips for supporting your child with a learning disability. How does Choosing Children do this? A professional is required to assess, certify and, provide intervention to a SPLD. Still we think, rightly I believe, that a blast that deafens someone harms that person—which is not to say that she cannot lead a flourishing life as a deaf person. But they still see it as a disability, something they would prefer not to have had. The ADA definition of disability demands accommodation for the disabling effect of illness, especially chronic illness such as diabetes or AIDS. 2 No. No, it doesn’t. Get Free Learning Disabilities Through Humanities Lenses now and use Learning Disabilities Through Humanities Lenses immediately to get % off or $ off or free shipping International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. In the 1997 first edition of the Disability Studies Reader, Lennard J. Davis wrote that "it had been virtually impossible to have someone teaching about disability within the humanities". Glover is a bioethicist who actually has read up on the lives of people with disability. There are many, NGOs working in the area of SPLD: the Maharashtra Dyslexia Association, founded in 1996; the Madras Dyslexia. Therefore, they fail miserably in the, education system where reading is dependent on phoneme awareness. To this already ludicrously implausible scenario Glover, following Parfit, adds the crucial question: “suppose there is funding for only one of the programmes and so we have to decide between them. The first problem affects the child during pregnancy. Due to non-identification, children with SPLD suffer mental, social and emotional turmoil. While the very unreality of the thought experiment is supposed to sharpen our intuitions, the information that would be necessary to weigh the desirability of the two possible lives is lost and the thought experiment instead only reinforces preexisting prejudices. This article describes two contradictory discourses on learning disabilities, namely the medical and the socio-cultural one. the person’s standards have changed because of her disability, therefore what she thinks is a “good life” is really an impoverished vision of flourishing); or chalking it up to a kind of compensatory mechanism (whereby the person feels happy subjectively but is really objectively worse off). Such a child is entitled for the admission in a class which is appropriate to his, age. The “empirical turn,” properly understood, offers several useful correctives: It ashcans extravagantly constructed thought experiments, exposing the sheer circularity of the premises smuggled in to the latest Science Frisson from Parfitia. Gotta go now, to watch some football. However, while this history is specific to the educational system in the US, the causes, preventions, interventions and treatments may be applied universally. I think that, other things being equal, it is good if the incidence of disabilities is reduced by parental choices to opt for potentially more flourishing children. I find arguments like the ones Glover and Kamm are making deeply troubling. But she thinks the woman will still have done wrong by not waiting. Rather, these scholars are philosophers who have turned their attentions (and their imaginations) to problems which interest them conceptually. The harm the expressivist argument points to comes through communication. 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